Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning systems breathe life into a building. Concurrently mechanical systems consume the largest percentage of energy in the built environment. tk1sc delivers practical, balanced and innovative design solutions to meet functional needs and minimize environmental impacts
Our designs include the use of radiant heat transfer to enhance the space comfort. This type of heat transfer allows the occupant to “feel” their surroundings and adapt to a high performance built environment. The system acts to heat and cool occupants and surroundings from fixed elements in the occupied space. The heating and cooling elements include the following;
Our designs can include the use of thermal storage for the purposes of reducing peak energy usage and transferring energy usage from one time to another part of the day, week or month. Thermal storage can be provided o=in many different forms within a building, see below from some of the more common types used.
The use of dedicated outside air systems (DOAS) has become very common in recent years and in high performance buildings. These air handling systems are 100% outside air and can be designed to control the amount of outside air into an occupied space. This allow the ventilation load and associated energy usage to be conserved when the occupants are not in the space or more lightly occupied than peak design. A critical element of high-performance building HVAC systems is the separation of ventilation load from space heating and cooling. This system helps accomplish this important goal and enables the building to save a significant amount of energy.
The use of geothermal system in HVAC systems is a key element in high performance building design. These systems allow for energy to be rejected or extracted from the earth. Close loop systems are designed like a large heat exchanger underground to reject or extract energy from the ground. These systems also have the benefit of reducing or eliminating a systems need for cooling towers and the water evaporated in the towers. This system is a key element in high performance and highly energy conserving HVAC systems.
Our designs include the use of natural ventilation to provide supplemental cooling for high performance spaces. The use of natural ventilations can be added to other systems in a mixed-mode approach to enhance energy efficiency and occupant satisfaction through added ventilation. Thoughtful integration and coordination with the design team is needed for this approach.
Just as temperature and light are key elements of comfort, the quality of a space is also defined by the acoustical environment. In collaboration with the acoustic engineer, our design team will identify the noise and vibration criteria of the specific spaces early in the project. Based on the criteria and type of spaces, noise and vibration control measures such as maximum sound power requirements for equipment, silencers selection, ductwork air velocities, and vibration isolators will be incorporated into the design to maintain the sound level required.
A hybrid approach to space conditioning combines natural ventilation from operable windows (manually or automated) and traditional mechanical systems with air distribution and refrigeration equipment. Each “mixed-mode” solution is specifically tailored to the uniqueness of a building. This approach to air conditioning offers a few advantages over sealed air-conditioned buildings, such as reduced HVAC energy consumption, higher occupant satisfaction and comfort, and potentially longer life of the mechanical systems.
For specific building types, displacement air distribution might be a very effective cooling alternative strategy. In delivering conditioned air at floor level, the more buoyant, warmer air is displaced and naturally floats to the ceiling; by conditioning only the lower occupied area, energy is saved.
We perform a wide array of energy analyses and modeling to demonstrate compliance with energy codes and support high-performance building goals. We lead the process and work closely with the design team to communicate design insights that will result in high-performance building solutions.
Providing a safe environment for occupants is the primary objective of designing HVAC systems for Laboratories and Healthcare environments. The function of each space is vital in determining the appropriate HVAC system selection and design. Unlike other building types, temperature, humidity, relative static pressure, air motion, air cleanliness, sound, and exhaust are regulated. The basic differences and regulations stem from the following.
Laboratories and healthcare HVAC systems design solutions may significantly affect construction, operation, and maintenance costs. Therefore, our engineers keep abreast of new technologies and regulatory changes that can be incorporated in the system design, contributing to reduced construction costs and energy savings while maintaining a safe environment for occupants.
The UC Irvine Medical Center is a 411-bed full-service academic medical center. With plans to add a new 300,000 square foot in-patient tower to the existing 1.2 million square foot hospital, the medical center needed an additional central plant to provide a stand-alone chiller and emergency power to the outpatient services building, diagnostic and testing labs, administrative areas, and all non-acute care buildings. The new central plant's location is at a new second entrance to the medical center, a key factor driving the architectural design.
The Student Recreation Center is a 138,000 square-foot facility for exercise and leisure activity that promotes lifelong health and wellness. This project aimed to create a student recreational center where students can workout, hang out, and relax in a sustainable environment. The 2-story project includes a gymnasium, sports courts, weight training & fitness areas, multipurpose rooms & a 5,000 square-foot pool area with showers &locker rooms. tk1sc provided mechanical, electrical, and plumbing engineering, low voltage systems design, and lighting design for this eco-friendly LEED Gold certified building.
This new 4-story, 100,000 square-foot medical office building is located on the City of Hope Medical Center Campus in Duarte, CA, and provides office and administrative support to the Medical Center.